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Your datasets will also be searchable on Mendeley Data Search, which includes nearly 11 million indexed datasets. For more information, visit Mendeley Data. Giorgia D'Innocenzo Dan Bishop Kelsey Panfil Ian Davis Review Articles. Rinaldo Livio Perri. Mioni S. Ewa Siucinska. Call for Papers. Special Issues. Michael Drew Jason Snyder. Keith Trujillo Sergio Iniguez. Daniela Schulz. PlumX Metrics. Below is a recent list of — articles that have had the most social media attention.

The Plum Print next to each article shows the relative activity in each of these categories of metrics: Captures, Mentions, Social Media and Citations. Go here to learn more about PlumX Metrics. Enriched environment exposure accelerates rodent driving skills. The ultimate effect on the endocannabinoid-releasing cell depends on the nature of the conventional transmitter being controlled. For instance, when the release of the inhibitory transmitter GABA is reduced, the net effect is an increase in the excitability of the endocannabinoid-releasing cell.

On the converse, when release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is reduced, the net effect is a decrease in the excitability of the endocannabinoid-releasing cell. Endocannabinoids are hydrophobic molecules. They cannot travel unaided for long distances in the aqueous medium surrounding the cells from which they are released and therefore act locally on nearby target cells.

Hence, although emanating diffusely from their source cells, they have much more restricted spheres of influence than do hormones , which can affect cells throughout the body. Historically, laboratory synthesis of cannabinoids was often based on the structure of herbal cannabinoids, and a large number of analogs have been produced and tested, especially in a group led by Roger Adams as early as and later in a group led by Raphael Mechoulam.

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Newer compounds are no longer related to natural cannabinoids or are based on the structure of the endogenous cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids are particularly useful in experiments to determine the relationship between the structure and activity of cannabinoid compounds, by making systematic, incremental modifications of cannabinoid molecules. When synthetic cannabinoids are used recreationally, they present significant health dangers to users. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Cannabis Arts Culture. Edibles Smoking Tea.

Drug culture Illegal drug trade Psychedelia. Main article: Cannabinoid receptor type 1. Main article: Cannabinoid receptor type 2.

Main article: Tetrahydrocannabinol. Main article: Cannabidiol. Main article: Cannabinol. Main article: Cannabigerol. Main article: Tetrahydrocannabivarin. Main article: Cannabidivarin. Main article: Cannabichromene. Endocannabinoids [ edit ] Further information on the roles and regulation of the endocannabinoids: Endocannabinoid system. Main article: Arachidonoylethanolamine. Main article: 2-Arachidonoylglycerol. Main article: 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether. Main article: N -Arachidonoyl dopamine.

Main article: Virodhamine. This section needs additional citations for verification.

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Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Retrieved Journal of Natural Products. Canadian Family Physician. Molecular Pharmacology. Pharmacological Reviews. Progress in Lipid Research. Incorporation experiments with 13 C-labeled glucoses". European Journal of Biochemistry. Patent application title: Controlled cannabis decarboxylation. US Patent application number: Schizophrenia Research. British Journal of Pharmacology. Neurochemical Research. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences.

Retrieved 6 October Biological Psychiatry.

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Bulletin on Narcotics. American Journal of Botany. Bibcode : Natur. Behavioural Pharmacology. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. Planta Medica. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor-dependent and -independent immunomodulatory effects".

Behavioral Neurobiology of the Endocannabinoid System

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of Chromatography A. Pharmacological Research. Bibcode : PNAS.. Science Advances. Drug Metabolism Reviews. Drug Testing and Analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry. Because they are extremely lipid soluble, cannabinoids accumulate in fatty tissues, reaching peak concentrations in days. They are then slowly released back into other body compartments, including the brain.

Because of the sequestration in fat, the tissue elimination half-life of THC is about 7 days, and complete elimination of a single dose may take up to 30 days.

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Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. Retrieved 29 November USA Today. The redundancy of the neuronal mechanisms enables the individual to mate and produce offspring even in cases of injury or developmental problems. Here, the discussion of sexual behaviors of female laboratory animals includes at least three lines of evolutionary thought.

During evolution, lordosis behavior co-opted already-developed postural control pathways: vestibulospinal and reticulospinal Further, the evolution of a female-typical mating behavior is neither limited to lordosis itself nor to the evolution of quadrupeds in that some female birds have a similar standing posture and vertebral dorsiflexion. Thus, lordosis or similar behaviors likely evolved multiple times, suggesting that it conferred a fitness advantage onto the females that possessed this behavior and the males that were responsive to it.


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It is likely that female choice allowed for an increase in the fitness of the females and their offspring Second, there was a clear need for internal fertilization to deal with the transition from living in water to living on land. There evolved corresponding changes in egg proteins 13 and changes in sperm.

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However, there are complexities; some fish use internal fertilization, suggesting that the optimal mating strategy is dependent on multiple environmental factors. This is supported by evidence that i internal fertilization has evolved more than once and ii external fertilization has also possibly evolved from internal fertilization While mating strategies vary greatly among species, overall internal fertilization would be expected to increase the importance of female mate choice as a selective constraint on the reproductive fitness of males, contributing to the evolution of lordosis.

New lines of thinking are also considering relationships between the evolution of steroid hormone receptors and transposable elements For example, Testori et al. Ultimately, for the mammalian sexual behavior which is the key to reproductive success, the evolutionary question boils down to the evolution of a gene regulatory network.